Bemidji State Wins Two Key NSIC Games On Road
Monday, January 20, 2003
Jan. 20, 2003

Friday, Jan. 24 Winona State*    7:30 p.m.
Saturday, Jan. 25    Concordia-St. Paul*    7:30 p.m.
*NSIC contest played at BSU Gymnasium

With two league wins on the road this past weekend, Bemidji State (8-8, 4-3) moved itself into a tie for fourth with MSU Moorhead and Wayne State (NE) in the NSIC. Meanwhile, Winona State (8-8, 7-0), winners of seven straight, hold the top spot with a perfect 7-0 record and maintain a one-and-one-half game lead over Northern State. Concordia-St. Paul (2-14, 2-5) stands eighth in the league, two games back of the Beavers.

Bemidji State 116, Minnesota-Morris 71 - Friday, Jan. 17 - Morris, Minn.
One week after hoisting up a then league-record 43 three-point field goal attempts, Bemidji State wanted more. At the P.E. Center, the Beavers did just that as they set the NSIC record for three-pointers attempted (46) and tied the conference mark with 19 three-pointers in the 116-71 victory over Minnesota-Morris (2-14, 0-7). BSU held UM-M to 33 percent shooting, which is the second lowest mark on the season for a BSU opponent. The game ended with BSU settling in for a 53 (39 of 74) percent mark from the field as the Cougars shot an ice-cold 33 percent (20 of 60). BSU held a +12 advantage on the boards (48-36) and forced 21 turnovers. UM-Morris went 24 of 30 (.800) from the foul line as BSU was 19-for-28 (.679). Senior guard Royce Bryan (Haviland, Kan.) put up 19 points, one shy of his career-high in just his second game back from a hand injury that kept him out for four games. Junior forward Charles Hanks (Chicago, Ill.) had 18 and a game-high eight rebounds while senior guard Jeff Lorenson (Cannon Falls, Minn.) finished with 17.

Bemidji State 82, Northern State 77 - Saturday, Jan. 18 - Aberdeen, S.D.
At Wachs Arena, the Beavers held the second-best field goal shooting team in the Northern Sun Intercollegiate Conference to 44 percent shooting for the game and halted Northern State’s (9-7, 6-2) five-game winning streak with a 82-77 victory in front of 3.407 fans. Bemidji State finished the game shooting 47 percent (27 of 57) from the field and was 75 percent (15 of 20) from the foul line. NSU went 12-for-17 from the charity stripe. Bemidji State’s starting five out-did the starters for Northern State out-scoring them 76-47 in the game. Junior guard Adam Daley (Des Moines, Iowa) poured in a career-best 21 points on eight of 14 shooting to lead BSU. Hanks followed with 19 points as he went seven-for-eight from the foul line. Bryan, who had a team-high seven rebounds and four steals, chipped in 16 points with Lorenson and senior guard Stan Johnson (Salt Lake City, Utah) getting 10 apiece.

PROBABLE STARTERS (based on previous game’s lineup)
Bemidji State (8-8, 4-3 NSIC)    Winona State (8-8, 7-0 NSIC)
G    #1 Stan Johnson    6-2    Sr.    G    #11 Zach Malvik    6-2    Fr.
G    #11 Royce Bryan    6-0    Sr.    G    #21 Justin Redetzke    6-1    Jr.
F    #10 Adam Daley    6-6    Jr.    G    #25 Chad Barfnecht    6-5    So
F    #00 Jeff Lorenson    6-2    Sr.    F    #4 Eric Doster    6-6    Jr.
F    #21 Charles Hanks    6-8    Jr.    F    #41 Jeff O’Donnell 6-6 Jr.

Concordia-St. Paul (2-14, 2-5 NSIC)
G    #00 David Albo    6-5    So.
G    #53 Brian Jamros    6-4    So.
F    #4 Jerome Brooks    6-4    Sr.
F    #21 Justin Vandenberg    6-7    So.
F    #3 Thomas Blunt    6-7    Sr.

Against Minnesota-Morris, it was the third time the Beavers have gone over the 100-point barrier this season - the most since they hit the century mark five times during the 1992-93 season...The 116 points was the most scored since BSU lighted the scoreboard for 126 vs. Northland (WI), Dec. 13, 1991...With the 29 assists for BSU is a school record and it moved to 4-0 this season when recording 20 or more assists in a game...The +12 rebounding advantage that BSU held was the second-highest mark of the season - BSU had 13 more boards against Bethel (11-26)...In the overall series, BSU has taken nine of the last 10 contests...The 45-point margin of victory is the largest for BSU in the series and ties the mark set by the Cougars, Dec. 28, 1987 in a 101-56 win...The old mark for assists was 27 against Jamestown, Feb. 17, 1992...Against Northern State, the Beavers held its seventh opponent to a sub-40 percent shooting mark from the field - they are 6-1 in those games...BSU has taken the last two in the overall series when played in Aberdeen, S.D. - before that, it lost seven straight...In four of the last five games, Bemidji State has gone over 45 percent from the floor...BSU played without centers Chris Wallin (broken foot) and Ben Caron (torn ACL) who are out with injuries - Wallin is expected to be back in 2-3 weeks while Caron is out for the year.

Bemidji State has averaged 30.1 three-point field attempts per game this season and is on pace to smash the school record of 694 set last season - if it stays on pace, it will total 813. The Beavers went for a school and league-record 46 attempts in the 116-71 win over UM-Morris on Friday. With those 46 attempts, BSU has now gone four games this season with 40 or more three-pointers launched - BSU hit for 43 vs. UM-Duluth (1/11/03), 42 vs. South Dakota State (11/30/02) and 40 vs. UM-Crookston (1/3/03) this season. Northern State shot up 39 tri-fectas a year ago, which was the old conference record.

In conference games only, BSU set a league record with 433 attempts last season. The Beavers are on pace to hit for 609 attempts in conference contests this year.

With shooting as many as they do, the Beavers have made some impressions for connecting on the long-range bomb. On Friday, BSU hit on 19 three’s, which tied the league mark and set a new school record. Against MSU-Moorhead (1/4/03) and Valley City State (11-22-02), the 14 three-point field goals tied a then-school record set on Feb. 15, 2002 against Northern State. In NCAA rankings through January 12th, BSU is sixth in Division II with 9.8 three-pointers made per game. In the conference, Bemidji State is on pace to connect on 206 three’s against NSIC opponents, which would break Southwest State’s mark of 163 set last season.

With the 25 steals against St. Scholastica (12-11-02), BSU set a new mark for thefts in a contest. The old mark was 20 against Northland College, Dec. 13, 1991. Also, Bemidji State was whistled for 33 fouls in the game against Wayne State (NE) (12-28-02), which set a school record. The old mark of 29 was done on three occasions with the last one being Jan. 25, 2002 against Southwest State.

On the season, the Beavers have averaged 18.3 assists a contest. They have notched 20 or more assists four times this season including a school-record 29 vs. Minnesota-Morris (1-17-03). The old school record for a single-game tally was 27 against Jamestown (2-17-92). If the Beavers stay on that pace through the end of the campaign, they will total 493. The school record is 447 assists set in the 1993-94 season.

Last season, the Beavers may have opened a few eyes with their success on the basketball court. Bemidji State tallied the most conference wins in school history (13). In addition, the 17 overall wins was the most since the 1972-73 season (19) and the .607 winning percentage was the best mark since the 1973-74 season (.667) - a streak of 28 seasons. The campaign ended with BSU seeded third in the conference tournament and an appearance in the second round. The 2002-03 preseason polls showed BSU finishing second in the league, the highest pick in school history.

BSU is currently in its 11th season in Northern Sun Intercollegiate Conference play. The Northern Sun Conference (women’s league) merged with the Northern Intercollegiate Conference (men’s league) before the start of the 1992-93 season. Overall in the NSIC, Bemidji State is 52-94 (.356) and sports a 30-42 (.417) mark at home and a 22-52 (.297) record on the road. Since the start of the 1998-99 season, Bemidji State is 21-16 (.568) at the BSU Gymnasium as it tallied its best record ever in league play at 7-2 last season on its home court.

Junior forward Charles Hanks (Chicago, Ill.) is back to improve on a break-out season from 2001-02. The South Plains (Texas) C.C. transfer was an All-Northern Sun Intercollegiate Conference first-team pick and was selected as the 2001-02 NSIC Newcomer of the Year. Hanks ranked in the top 15 in the conference in several statistical categories: second in points/game (17.8), seventh in rebounds/game (6.2) and field goal % (51%); eighth in blocks/game (0.80) and 15th in steals/game (1.3). In addition, Hanks reached double figures for points in 25 of the 28 games including 11 times with 20+ points. Twice, Hanks was recognized as the conference player of the week. Overall, Bemidji State was 8-3 when Hanks went over the 20-point barrier last season. Due to his performance last campaign, the league coaches selected him as a 2002-03 Player to Watch in preseason voting.

This season, Hanks led the squad with 21 points on 10 of 18 shooting in the 82-78 loss to Jamestown (11/23). Hanks dished out a personal-best six assists in the same game. In the South Dakota State Tournament over the Thanksgiving weekend, Hanks was named to the all-tournament team for garnering 24 points and 13 rebounds in the two games. His 21 points and 15 rebounds against St. Scholastica (12/11) gave him his fifth career double-double. Before that, he tallied 19 points and 11 boards in the 81-72 win at Bethel (11/26). Hanks has led the squad seven times in rebounding, which is the most on the club, and five times in scoring. He is tops on the team in scoring (14.7 ppg), rebounds (6.4 rpg), field goal percentage (.505) and made field goals (100), fourth in steals (16) and fifth in assists (31).

Senior guard Stan Johnson (Salt Lake City, Utah) came out on fire in his season-opening weekend as a Beaver. The Southern Utah University transfer scorched the Vikings from Valley City State (11/22) for a game-high 23 points. Johnson connected on four three-pointers and was five-of-six at the charity stripe. He added five assists and two steals in the winning effort. The next night, Johnson came away with 15 points, five rebounds, four assists and a steal against Jamestown. In his third game as a Beaver, Johnson set a career-best with 25 points, which is tied for the BSU single game high, on 8 of 16 shooting. Currently, Johnson is second on the club in steals (28) and tied for first in assists (52), second in scoring (13.1), third in three-pointers (26) and fourth in free throw percentage (.775). Johnson is tops on the squad with 13 games of double-digit scoring efforts, including 10 of the last 12 contests.

In his debut in the green and white, junior guard Adam Daley (Des Moines, Iowa) was on top of his game. In the 73-64 BSU win against Valley City State (11/22), Daley connected on 6 of 15 field goals including three tri-fectas to net 17 points. The output was good for second on the team. He added five rebounds, two steals and one assist. Daley went for a team-high 14 points most recently vs. Michigan Tech (12/14) as he hit on four three-pointers. On the season, Daley is first on the club in three-point field goal percentage (.468 - 37/79) as that mark is second in the league. His .495 (54/109) mark from the floor is second on the team, 9.6 points per game is fifth and has tallied 10+ points in nine games and six of the last nine.

In leading the Beavers to wins over UM-Crookston and MSU-Moorhead the first weekend of January, Daley was named the Northern Sun Intercollegiate Conference Men’s Basketball Co-Player of the Week. On the weekend, Daley was 10 of 15 (66.7 percent) from the field, including nine of 12 (75.0 percent) in three-pointers, two of two (100.0 percent) from the free throw line, grabbed six rebounds, totaled 31 points for an average of 15.5 points in the two NSIC wins. His five three-pointers on Saturday tied for the eight highest output this season in the conference while his percentage (83.3 percent) from long-range is tied for first.

vs. Winona State (8-8, 7-0 NSIC)
Mike Leaf enters his sixth year at the helm of the Warriors program and maintains a 69-43 (.616) overall mark. The Warriors finished last season with a 14-13 record and took sixth in the league. In 2002-03, they are selected to finish in the same spot.

This past weekend, WSU took down Minnesota-Crookston, 79-69 and MSU Moorhead, 85-77 at home to extend its winning streak to seven games. Five of its conference wins have been by 10 points or less including a 103-97 overtime victory over Northern State (12-30-02).

Zach Malvik leads all scorers with 14.3 points per game as that mark is ninth in the league. He is followed by David Zellmann (12.0), Jon Urbach (11.3) and Eric Doster (10.7) rounding out the double-digit scorers. Jeff O’Donnell is first on the club in rebounding (6.4), which is tied for fifth in the NSIC, and blocks (11). The leading assists man is Malvik with 58 while Doster connects on 39 percent of his tri-fectas and has 33 on the season. O’Donnell shoots 49 percent from the field, which is first on the team.

The Warriors shoot the long-ball well as shown in their 37 percent mark, which is fourth in the league. Also, they are fourth with 9.1 three’s made per game. However, WSU struggles defensively as it is last in the NSIC by allowing its opponents to shoot 49 percent.

vs. Concordia-St. Paul (2-14, 2-5 NSIC)
Walking the sidelines for the Golden Bears is Jim Datka, who is in his eighth season as a collegiate head coach. At C-SP, Datka is 18-36 (.333) entering his third year. Last season, the Bears tied for eighth in the league as they went 9-18 overall and currently stand in eighth place in the league.

So far in 2002-03, Concordia-St. Paul halted a four-game skid with a 85-66 win over Minnesota-Crookston on Saturday. One reason for Concordia-St. Paul’s struggles is its 42 percent shooting from the field, which is ninth in the league.

Thomas Blunt, who leads the team with a 16.6 scoring average, 6.9 rebounds per game and nine total blocks, is one of three players to start in all 16 contests. His scoring average is good for fifth in the NSIC while he is third in rebounding. Jerome Brooks shoots 48 percent from the floor to lead the program while he chips in 10.3 points a game. David Albo is tops with 52 assists on the season while Dan Torrez has hit on 26 three-pointers as he is one of four players with 20 or more three’s.

ALL-TIME SERIES: vs. Winona State 21-43 // vs. Concordia-St. Paul 5-1**
Winona State has taken 14 of the last 16 meetings in the series. BSU snapped an eight-game Warriors winning streak with a 70-69 win, Feb. 27, 2002 in the first round of the NSIC tournament. Also, BSU had dropped its last seven games with the Warriors in Bemidji before that game. Charles Hanks poured in 18 points to tie for the game-high in leading the Beavers to a 50 percent mark from the floor. The Warriors shot just 37.9 percent overall but outscored BSU 16-4 from the foul line. That BSU victory came just four days after a 20-point win on the part of WSU.
In All-Time Series...
BSU Largest Margin of Victory:    20 (100-80, 1/22/94)
WSU Largest Margin of Victory:    41 (94-53, 2/17/01)
BSU Highest Scoring Output:    108 (W, 108-106 2ot, 12/29/83)
WSU Highest Scoring Output:    106 2x (most recently W, 106-75, 2/15/87)
BSU Lowest Scoring Output:    47 (L, 60-47, 1/19/02)
WSU Lowest Scoring Output:    53 (W, 53-51, 1/30/82)
The Beavers have taken the last five contests after losing 51-49, Jan. 15, 2000 in the team’s first meeting. Hanks scored 20 to lead BSU in points with Royce Bryan tallying nine assists in the 91-76 Beaver win last February. That game was BSU’s largest margin of victory (15) in the series. Bemidji State shot a season-best 60.7 percent from the field.
In All-Time Series...
BSU Largest Margin of Victory:    15 (91-76, 2/22/02)
C-SP Largest Margin of Victory:    2 (51-49, 1/15/00)
BSU Highest Scoring Output:    91 (W, 91-76, 2/22/02)
C-SP Highest Scoring Output:    77 (L, 80-77, 1/19/02)
BSU Lowest Scoring Output:    51 (W, 51-49, 1/15/00)
C-SP Lowest Scoring Output:    49 (L, 51-49, 1/15/00)
**Series records since the 1971-72 season

Senior point guard Royce Bryan (Haviland, Kan.) is currently involved in the assists career record at BSU. He is six dimes shy of sliding into the sixth spot as he moved past David Heiss into seventh place with six assists this past weekend. So far this season, Bryan has averaged 4.1 assists per game and if he keeps on that pace will total 94 on the season and 239 for his career, which would be good enough for third on the school charts. Senior center Ben Caron (Bemidji, Minn.) was on his way to break into the top-ten in scoring and rebounding before his knee injury as he is 131 points from the tenth spot. Also, Caron needed just 27 rebounds to take over the tenth spot in in that category.
Top Career Assist Totals (1976-Present)
1.    314    David Lee    1984-88
2.    247    Tony Brown    1987-91
3.    233    Teaser Sweeney    1989-93
4.    212    B.J. LaVelle    1996-99
5.    207    Brian Weierke    1987-91
6.    200    Kevin Nichols    1991-92, ‘93-94
7. 194    Royce Bryan    2001-SA

Six players are recognized thus far among the league leaders in stats through all games played (through Jan. 19): Stan Johnson is third in free throw percentage (.775 - 55/71), sixth in steals/game (1.75), tied for 10th in assists/game (3.25), 12th in points/game (13.1), 16th in three-point field goal percentage (.356 - 26/73) and 22nd in field goal percentage (.430 - 64/149); Charles Hanks is tied for fifth in rebounds/game (6.4), tied for sixth in blocks/game (0.69), eighth in points/game (14.7), 12th in field goal percentage (.505 - 100/198), tied for 24th in steals/game (1.00) and tied for 29th in assists/game (1.94); Royce Bryan is first in steals/game (2.75), fourth in assists/game (4.08), 18th in three-point field goal percentage (.353 - 24/68), 20th in blocks/game (0.42) and 28th in points/game (10.0); Jeff Lorenson is fifth in three-point field goal percentage (.425 - 31/73), tied for 10th in assists/game (3.25) and 17th in steals/game (1.12); Adam Daley is second in three-point field goal percentage (.468 - 37/79); and Aaron Kallhoff is 26th in assists/game (2.19).

Through Jan. 19th in all games played, BSU stands in the upper half of the 10-team conference in eight out of the 10 statistical categories: first in scoring offense (81.9), field goal percentage defense (.417 - 371/890), three-pointers per game (10.56) and scoring margin (+8.6); third in field goal percentage (.461 - 473/1027); fourth in scoring defense (73.3); tied for fourth in win/loss percentage (.500) and fifth in free throw percentage (.681 - 196/288).

Through 16 games in 2002-03, there have been two BSU players to record double-doubles: Ben Caron with one and Charles Hanks with two. Below is a listing of their career double-doubles (italics indicating 2002-03):
Ben Caron (18 points-12 rebounds)    vs. Augustana, 11-29-02
Ben Caron (18 points-10 rebounds)    vs. Southwest State, 2-28-97
Charles Hanks (21 points-15 rebounds)    vs. St. Scholastica, 12-11-02
Charles Hanks (19 points-11 rebounds)    vs. Bethel, 11-26-02
Charles Hanks (16 points-12 rebounds)    vs. MSU Moorhead, 2-1-02
Charles Hanks (25 points-10 rebounds)    vs. Wayne State (NE), 12-7-01
Charles Hanks (16 points-11 rebounds)    vs. Mayville State, 11-16-01

(2nd Season at BSU - 25-19 (.568); 9th Season Overall - 179-89 (.668))
One season is all head coach Jeff Guiot needed to put a successful product on the basketball court. In his inaugural year at BSU last season, Guiot guided the Beavers to their most conference wins in school history (13). In addition, the 17 overall wins is the most since the 1972-73 season (19) and the .607 winning percentage is the best mark since the 1973-74 season (.667) - a streak of 28 seasons. The campaign ended with BSU seeded third in the conference tournament and an appearance in the second round.

The Chanute, Kan., product was previously the assistant coach at Southern Utah University in 2000-01. Prior to joining the Southern Utah coaching staff in the fall of 2000, Guiot had served as the head coach at Neosho County Community College in Chanute, KS. In his seven years at Neosho, his teams compiled a 164-60 record, won four conference championships and made seven consecutive playoff appearances.

His records at NCCC include highest winning percentage (73 percent), most consecutive 20-win seasons (five), most wins at the school, and most post-season wins. Twice named Jayhawk Conference Coach of the Year, Guiot coached three All-Americans and six Academic All-Americans at the school, which was the 2000 NJCAA National Academic Team of the Year.

Guiot received both his bachelor’s and master’s degrees from Pittsburg (KS) State University, where he was an All-American and all-conference player as he led the nation in free throw percentage in 1986.

Helping Guiot on the bench is seventh-year assistant Doug Peters, first-year graduate assistant John
Szwaja and first-year student assistant Fred Swanson.

Coach Guiot understands the Beavers will have a tough road immediately with the first five contests away from the BSU Gymnasium.

" Our first five games are on the road and we have a veteran ball club so we wanted to test ourselves early," said Guiot. "Hopefully our schedule is set up to get us prepared for conference play."

To add difficulty to the situation, the fifth game against South Dakota State (Nov. 30) dealt with the third best team as ranked in the NABC/Division II Bulletin National Preseason Rankings as it won the rugged North Central Conference a season ago.

Two of the first four home games after the five-game road stint will be against opponents that each recorded 20+ wins last campaign. St. Cloud State (Dec. 5) finished the season 20-6 and fifth in the North Central Region while Michigan Tech (Dec. 14), at 27-3 and 11th in the preseason national polls, lost in the second round of the Great Lakes Regional last season. From that point, BSU has the task of facing the top three teams in the NSIC (UM-Duluth, Northern State, Southwest State) from a year ago on the road before they come to Bemidji.

" We wanted to go out and play nationally-ranked caliber teams because that is what one day where we would like to be," said Guiot. "Looking at the conference, UM-Duluth is going to be the favorite I would say. They have got the MVP of the tournament last year and they signed some good kids. Also, I think Moorhead is going to be up there. They are vastly improved and they have almost all their guys back and they finished fifth in the conference. And Concordia-SP has really gotten better. So from top to bottom, the league is going to be much stronger this year, no doubt about that. It ought to be very exciting for the fans to watch because anything can happen on any given night.”

According to the 2002-03 Northern Sun Intercollegiate Conference Men’s Basketball Preseason Coaches Poll, the BSU men’s basketball squad is picked to finish second (74) in the league, 16 points behind Minnesota-Duluth. UMD will look to repeat as it tied with Northern State for last year’s regular season crown. NSU is close behind Bemidji State with 73 points with MSU Moorhead (66) and Southwest State (61) rounding out the top-five. SSU received one first-place vote behind the nine slots that UMD received.

In 2001-02, the Bulldogs managed to win the NSIC tournament and advance to the NCAA Men’s Basketball North Central Regional Tournament, losing to eventual national champion Metro State (CO). NSU gained a berth to the NSIC tournament semifinals after tying for the top spot in the NSIC. MSU Moorhead finished fifth and had its first winning season (17-10, 11-7) in seven seasons. The Mustangs from SSU finished tied for second last season and participated in the 2001 NCAA Elite 8.

The Beavers face the daunting challenge of traveling to the top-three league teams from a season ago (UM-Duluth, Northern State, Southwest State) in the first half of the conference schedule. Last season, BSU lost by three points (84-81) at SSU, Jan. 25. From that juncture, the Beavers reeled off seven NSIC wins including road victories over UM-Duluth (61-57), Feb. 9 and Northern State (79-76), Feb. 15.

All tickets for BSU home events can be purchased at the gate or by calling 218-755-2045. Ticket prices are as follows: $5 general admission, $2 senior citizens/non-BSU students, $1 under-12 and BSU students with valid ID are free.

Voice of the Beavers Shaun Michaels returns for his fourth year behind the mic as Bemidji State continues its broadcast agreement with R.P. Broadcasting of Bemidji. Michaels, who also hosts the morning show on Real Country 98.3, provides the Beavers with one of the most enthusiastic young radio voices in college athletics today. Brian Bisonette provides expert analysis and color commentary.

KKBJ is scheduled to provide live coverage of select Beaver men’s basketball games and also will have broadcasts available for any potential post-season contests. Mark your calenders for three contests to be aired on KKBJ: Jan. 3 vs. UM-Crookston and Jan. 4 vs. MSU Moorhead. Both contests begin at 7:30 p.m.

Additionally, these game broadcasts will be streamed live over the Internet via KKBJ’s web site. Broadcasts are available to Windows, Macintosh and UNIX computer users and are distributed in RealAudio format (requires RealOne player, available as a free download at

For more information or to listen to the Internet audio broadcasts, point your web browser to:

Internet listeners should be aware that server limitations allow only 120 concurrent listeners to BSU’s audio broadcasts. Internet audio broadcasts do not begin until approximately five minutes prior to the scheduled starting time of the pre-game show.

Fans will have an opportunity to watch live television broadcasts of select Beaver men’s basketball games for the 2002-03 season. Three more games in the season are slated to be broadcast: Jan. 3, 4 & Feb. 15 with all games beginning at 7:30 p.m. Join Scott Williams as he handles the play-by-play duties for exciting Beaver basketball. Helping Williams with the color duties is Kevin Drexel.
All three of these broadcasts are scheduled to be shown on a tape-delay basis as well.